Éire 100
Mura mbeadh in Éirinn ach 100 duine, bheadh...
If there were only 100 people in Ireland...
Foinse: Daonáireamh 2011. Poblacht na hÉireann amháin. Ní ionann suíomh ar an léarscáil, atá randamach, agus suíomh i bhfírinne.
Source: Census 2011. Republic of Ireland only. Location on map is random and does not indicate location in reality.

Míniú

Tá sé mar sprioc ag an chairt seo an cheist a fhreagairt, cé iad na teangacha a labhraíonn daonra na hÉireann. Tá spéis agam sna teangacha a labhraíonn daoine as a stuaim féin ina saol pearsanta sa bhaile, lena muintir nó lena gcuid cairde. Níl spéis agam sna teangacha a labhraíonn daoine toisc go gcaithfidh siad iad a labhairt san obair nó ar scoil.

Na sonraí sa chairt a bhaineann le gach teanga seachas Béarla agus Gaeilge, tá siad bunaithe ar cheist 15 Dhaonáireamh 2011 inar fiafraíodh de dhaoine cén teanga a labhraíonn siad sa bhaile murab í Béarla agus Gaeilge. Tá 12 duine as céad sa stát a labhraíonn teanga eile seachas Béarla nó Gaeilge sa bhaile, agus is í an Pholainnis an teanga is mó acu (triúr as céad).

Ábhar beagáinín níos casta is ea an Béarla agus an Ghaeilge. I nDaonáireamh 2011, ní raibh a leithéid de cheist agus “cé acu Béarla nó Gaeilge a labhraíonn tú i do shaol pearsanta”. Ach bhí ceist 14 ann a bhí ag fiafraí dhá rud: an bhfuil Gaeilge labhartha agat, má tá, cé chomh minic agus cá háit a labhraíonn tú í.

Toisc nach ionann duine a (deir go) bhfuil Gaeilge aige agus duine a labhraíonn í ina shaol pearsanta, rinne mé trí ghrúpa de na daoine a dúirt go bhfuil Gaeilge acu.

● An grúpa a labhraíonn Gaeilge “de ghnáth”, sin daoine a dúirt go labhraíonn siad Gaeilge gach lá agus gur taobh amuigh den chóras oideachais a dhéanann siad é sin. Seo “pobal na Gaeilge” sa chiall is cúinge. Feiceann muid nach bhfuil beirt as céad sa phobal seo.

● An grúpa a labhraíonn “Béarla de ghnáth agus Gaeilge uaireanta”, sin daoine a dúirt go bhfuil Gaeilge acu, go labhraíonn siad níos teirce ná go laethúil í, ach gur taobh amuigh den chóras oideachais a dhéanann siad é sin. Seo pobal na Gaeilge sa chiall leathan: daoine a chaitheann cuid mhaith dá saol le teanga eile (Béarla, glacaim leis) ach a bhfuil ról éigin ag an Ghaeilge ina saol freisin. Feiceann muid gur grúpa réasúnta mór é seo, 16 as céad.

● Níl fágtha anois de na daoine a dúirt go bhfuil Gaeilge acu ach iad siúd a dúirt nach labhraíonn siad Gaeilge ar chor ar bith nó nach labhraíonn siad ach sa scoil í. Ní airím iad siúd mar dhaoine a labhraíonn Gaeilge ina saol pearsanta, agus cuirim le fuílleach an daonra iad faoi cheannteideal “Béarla amháin”. Tá 70 as céad sa stát seo nach labhraíonn ach Béarla ia saol pearsanta – beag beann ar dhaoine áirithe ina measc ag maíomh go bhfuil Gaeilge acu ach í gan úsáid.

Ábhar spéise is ea nach bhfuil Teanga Chomharthaíochta na hÉireann, nó teanga chomharthaíochta ar bith eile, luaite áit ar bith in aschur Dhaonáirimh 2011. De réir an daonáirimh chéanna tá breis is 90,000 sa stát atá bodhar nó a bhfuil míchumas mór éisteachta orthu. Is ionann sin agus timpeall is beirt as céad. Má ghlacann muid leis go bhfuil teanga chomharthaíochta ag beagnach gach duine atá bodhar, is aisteach nach bhfuil fianaise ar bith de sin ar fáil i dtorthaí an daonáirimh. Tá a chúis sin le haimsiú i bhfoclaíocht na gceisteanna, seans. Na ceisteanna ar fad sa daonáireamh a bhaineann le cúrsaí teanga, fiafraíonn siad cén teanga a “leabhraíonn” tú. Thabharfadh an fhoclaíocht sin le fios go bhfuil teangacha comharthaíochta as áireamh mar sin.

Explanation

This chart attempts to answer the question, what languages does the population of Ireland speak. Importantly, I am interested in the languages people speak spontaneously in their personal lives at home, with family or with friends. I am not interested in the languages people speak because they must, such as at work or at school.

Data presented in the chart about languages other than English and Irish are based on question 15 in Census 2011, which asks what language people speak at home if not English or Irish. There are 12 people out of a hundred in the state who speak a language other than English or Irish at home, and the most frequently spoken one of them is Polish (three out of a hundred).

English and Irish are a more complicated matter. In Census 2011 there was no such question as “which of English or Irish do you speak in your personal life”. There was however question 14 which asked two things: whether you can speak Irish and, if so, how often and where you speak it.

Obviously, somebody who says they can speak Irish is not automatically somebody who speaks mainly or exclusively Irish in their personal life. So I divided the people who said they can speak Irish into three groups.

● The group who speak “mainly Irish” are the people who reported that they speak Irish every day and that they do so outside the education system. This is the Irish-language community in the narrow sense. We see that there are only two such people out of a hundred in the state.

● The group who speak “mainly English and occasionally Irish”, those are the people who said that they can speak Irish and that they speak it less often than every day, but that they do so outside the education system. This is the Irish-language community in the broad sense: people who live a large portion of their lives through another language (presumably English) but who also have some role for Irish in their lives. We see that this group is fairly large, 16 out of hundred.

● Finally, what remains are the people who said that they can speak Irish but that they never speak it or that they only speak it within the education system. I do not count these as people who speak Irish in their personal lives, and I have put them together with the remainder of the population under the heading “English only”. In total, there are 70 people out of a hundred in the state who speak only English in their personal lives – even though some of them claim they can (but don’t) also speak Irish.

An interesting point is that Irish Sign Language, or any other sign language, does not appear anywhere in the results of Census 2011. According to the same census, there are over 90,000 deaf or severely hard-of-hearing people in the state, which makes for approximately two out of a hundred. Assuming that practically every deaf person knows a sign language, it is strange that no evidence of that emerged from the census. This can perhaps be traced to the wording of the questions. All language-related questions in the census asked what languages you “speak”, a wording that encourages the interpretation that sign languages do not qualify.